Pest analysis pdf

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Pest analysis pdf

PEST analysis political, economic, socio-cultural and technological describes a framework of macro-environmental factors used in the environmental scanning component of strategic management.

It is part of an external analysis when conducting a strategic analysis or doing market researchand gives an overview of the different macro-environmental factors to be taken into consideration. It is a strategic tool for understanding market growth or decline, business position, potential and direction for operations. There is also STEERwhich considers sociocultural, technological, economic, ecological, and regulatory factors, but does not specifically include political factors.

The model's factors will vary in importance to a given company based on its industry and the goods it produces. For example, consumer and B2B companies tend to be more affected by the social factors, while a global defense contractor would tend to be more affected by political factors. Additionally, factors that are more likely to change in the future or more relevant to a given company will carry greater importance. For example, a company which has borrowed heavily will need to focus more on the economic factors especially interest rates.

Furthermore, conglomerate companies who produce a wide range of products such as Sony, Disney, or BP may find it more useful to analyze one department of its company at a time with the PESTEL model, thus focusing on the specific factors relevant to that one department.

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A company may also wish to divide factors into geographical relevance, such as local, national, and global. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Part of a series on Strategy Major dimensions. Major thinkers. Frameworks and tools. Retrieved Carr; Alfred J.

Nanni Jr. Delivering Results: Managing What Matters. Strategic planning tools. Categories : Strategic management Business planning Business terms Analysis.PESTEL is an acronym for the political, economic, sociocultural, technological, environmental, and legal contexts in which a firm operates. A PESTEL analysis helps managers gain a better understanding of the opportunities and threats they face; consequently, the analysis aids in building a better vision of the future business landscape and how the firm might compete profitably.

This useful tool analyzes for market growth or decline and, therefore, the position, potential, and direction for a business. When a firm is considering entry into new markets, these factors are of considerable importance.

Moreover, PESTEL analysis provides insight into the status of key market flattenersboth in terms of their present state and future trends. Firms need to understand the macroenvironment to ensure that their strategy is aligned with the powerful forces of change affecting their business landscape.

When firms exploit a change in the environment—rather than simply survive or oppose the change—they are more likely to be successful. A solid understanding of PESTEL also helps managers avoid strategies that may be doomed to fail given the circumstances of the environment. The fact that a strategy is congruent with PESTEL in the home environment gives no assurance that it will also align in other countries. Next, identify and categorize the information that applies to these factors.

Finally, analyze the data and draw conclusions. Common mistakes in this analysis include stopping at the second step or assuming that the initial analysis and conclusions are correct without testing the assumptions and investigating alternative scenarios. The framework includes sample questions or prompts, the answers to which can help determine the nature of opportunities and threats in the macroenvironment. The political environment can have a significant influence on businesses.

In addition, political factors affect consumer confidence and consumer and business spending. For instance, how stable is the political environment? This is particularly important for companies entering new markets. Government policies on regulation and taxation can vary from state to state and across national boundaries. Such treaties tend to favor trade among the member countries but impose penalties or less favorable trade terms on nonmembers.

Managers also need to consider macroeconomic factors that will have near-term and long-term effects on the success of their strategy. Inflation rates, interest rates, tariffs, the growth of the local and foreign national economies, and exchange rates are critical. Unemployment, availability of critical labor, and the local cost of labor also have a strong bearing on strategy, particularly as related to the location of disparate business functions and facilities.

pest analysis pdf

The social and cultural influences on business vary from country to country. Depending on the type of business, factors such as the local languages, the dominant religions, the cultural views toward leisure time, and the age and lifespan demographics may be critical.

Local sociocultural characteristics also include attitudes toward consumerism, environmentalism, and the roles of men and women in society.

Apple Inc. PESTLE Analysis

For example, Coca-Cola and PepsiCo have grown in international markets due to the increasing level of consumerism outside the United States.

Making assumptions about local norms derived from experiences in your home market is a common cause for early failure when entering new markets. However, even home-market norms can change over time, often caused by shifting demographics due to immigration or aging populations. The critical role of technology is discussed in more detail later in this section. For now, suffice it to say that technological factors have a major bearing on the threats and opportunities firms encounter.

For example, new technology may make it possible for products and services to be made more cheaply and to a better standard of quality. New technology may also provide the opportunity for more innovative products and services, such as online stock trading and remote working.Our website is made possible by displaying online advertisements to our visitors. Please consider supporting us by disabling your ad blocker.

7+ PESTLE Analysis Templates – PDF

The framework has undergone certain alterations, as gurus of Marketing have added certain things like an E for Ethics to instill the element of demographics while utilizing the framework while researching the market. How to write a PESTLE analysis from scratch : There are certain questions that one needs to ask while conducting this analysiswhich give them an idea of what things to keep in mind.

They are:.

pest analysis pdf

All the aspects of this technique are crucial for any industry a business might be in. It may be so, that the importance of each of the factors may be different to different kinds of industries, but it is imperative to any strategy a company wants to develop that they conduct the PESTLE analysis as it forms a much more comprehensive version of the SWOT analysis.

It is as below:. These factors determine the extent to which a government may influence the economy or a certain industry. For example, a government may impose a new tax or duty due to which entire revenue generating structures of organizations might change. Political factors include tax policies, Fiscal policy, trade tariffs etc. Economic factors include inflation rate, interest rates, foreign exchange rates, economic growth patterns etc.

These factors scrutinize the social environment of the marketand gauge determinants like cultural trends, demographics, population analytics etc. An example for this can be buying trends for Western countries like the US where there is high demand during the Holiday season.

These factors pertain to innovations in technology that may affect the operations of the industry and the market favorably or unfavorably. This refers to automation, research and development and the amount of technological awareness that a market possesses.

These factors have both external and internal sides. There are certain laws that affect the business environment in a certain country while there are certain policies that companies maintain for themselves. Legal analysis takes into account both of these angles and then charts out the strategies in light of these legislations. For example, consumer laws, safety standards, labor laws etc. These factors include all those that influence or are determined by the surrounding environment. This aspect of the PESTLE is crucial for certain industries particularly for example tourism, farming, agriculture etc.

Factors of a business environmental analysis include but are not limited to climate, weather, geographical location, global changes in climate, environmental offsets etc.

A Tool for Business Analysis. Ad Blocker Detected Our website is made possible by displaying online advertisements to our visitors.As an entrepreneur, you can try to predict how your products or services will resonate with the public. However, there will always be factors outside of your control affecting how your business operates.

One method for discovering and quantifying those factors is the PEST analysis. PEST is an acronym for political, economic, social and technological. It's a way of understanding how external forces impact your business. It was created by Harvard professor Francis Aguilar in It should be included in every business plan, in addition to a SWOT analysisas it is part of risk management and strategy design. According to Donna Lubrano, senior advisor at Northeastern Universitythe political environment is an analysis of what politics is doing to the business world.

We look at tariffs, trade deals as they are developed not only by the economics or business side but what political relationships influence those decisions," Lubrano said. Government regulations and legal issues affect a company's ability to be profitable and successful, and this factor looks at how that can happen.

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Issues that must be considered include tax guidelines, copyright and property law enforcement, political stability, trade regulations, social and environmental policy, employment laws and safety regulations. Companies should also consider their local and federal power structure, and discuss how anticipated shifts in power could affect their business. The economic factor examines outside economic issues that can play a role in a company's success. For this analysis, look at interest rates, exchange inflation, unemployment, gross domestic product, credit availability and rise and fall of the middle class.

With the social factor, a business can analyze the socioeconomic environment of the given industry's market to understand how consumer needs are shaped and what brings them to the market for a purchase. Among the items that should be examined are demographics, population growth rates, age distribution, attitudes toward work and job market trends. The drive to eat healthier, the drive to care for the environment, baby boomers staying in the workforce longer, adults have fewer children later in life.

All of these impact how consumers buy houses, cars, etc. Technology plays a huge part in business, and it can impact it either negatively or positively. With the introduction of new products, new technologies and services, a certain marketplace can have a tough time adjusting so it's important to assess the technology from all angles. Specific items that need to be scrutinized include, but are not limited to, government spending on technological research, the life cycle of current technology, the role of the internet and how any changes to it may play out, and the impact of potential information technology changes.

For the legal factor, a company should examine how legal changes and interpretations could impact a company, directly or indirectly, according to Daniel Feiman, managing director at Build It Backwards.

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He advised including changes in laws, global law conflicts and Supreme Court decisions in this portion of the analysis. For the environmental portion of the analysis, Feiman said to look at environmental evolutions and regulations to determine how they could impact a business.

Look closely at ecological regulations and restrictions as well as endangered species. Feiman also suggested that each of factors, including the original PEST factors, should be measured against the following grid:. There are numerous benefits of conducting a PEST analysis, which can reap dividends for your business.

The more significant benefits include:. Solarju, a digital marketer at Housingman Indianoted a few disadvantages as well. As the data collect[ed] is huge, one needs to carefully utilize it in a better way, and as it is from external sources, one is not sure about the accuracy.

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Having worked in the food industry, print and online journalism, and marketing, she is now a freelance contributor for Business News Daily. When she's not working, you will find her exploring her current town of Cape May, NJ or binge watching Pretty Little Liars for the th time. Product and service reviews are conducted independently by our editorial team, but we sometimes make money when you click on links.

Learn more. Lead Your Team Strategy. What is E-Commerce?Apple products have innovative and distinct features for each of its range of products. This multinational corporation is known for its unbeatable niche in the industry.

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It is has created a benchmark and revolutionized the world of personal computing since its formation. Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak are the two college dropouts, who co-founded Apple.

Subscribe our YouTube channel for more related videos. For Apple case studylet us discuss some of the basic information about the company:. Consumer electronics, computer hardware, computer software, and online services. Samsung Electronics Co. In this Apple case studythe aim is to identify the internal as well as the external factors that have an impact on obtaining achieving high performances by Apple. From the study, the conclusion is if the company wants to continue to succeed the same way then it must consider macro and micro environmental factors.

To determine these aspects from this Apple case study, data has been collected from a varied source like published paper, journals and many case studies, which were conducted by the company. SWOT analysis is the most popular and basic analytical tool for identifying internal strengths and challenges, and external available opportunities and threats for the assessment, enabling managers to scan the environment properly to organize everything more efficiently.

SWOT stands for. To improve an organization's strength, making sure its weaknesses have to be eliminated, grab the opportunities and foresee the threats. SWOT Analysis of Apple Strengths Leading innovator amongst the electronics brands: SinceApple has persistently been ranked at the top position on the in BDG's list of 50 companies because of its uniqueness in electronics devices. Apple is regarded as a leader for innovating products in the market like I Work a presentation program and iTunes Media Player publishing photos, movies, organizing editing and music.

Moreover, Apple has now become one of the biggest online retailers for streaming music, videos and software solutions.

Apple has extended its coverage by reaching out to more customers. Annual Financial Report of Apple Inc. Sales Revenue. Gross Income. Net Income. Apple with the aim of targeting direct sales, it has located its branches in densely populated locations that can contribute to earn more revenues and to ensure more results that are terrific. For improving goodwill and brand recognition, it took over whole control of supply chain and provided a report of the code of conducts to the suppliers. The same practice is still maintained for which Apple has earned great trust from the customers who wait eagerly to get the latest version of Apple products.

Strong and effective marketing team: In Apple case studyCEB elucidated that to approach customers they furnished correct information to the customers about what they exactly looking for, instead of very complicated and multifaceted websites.

This is exactly what Apple is doing since long while involving a simple process to market its products. To have a better understanding of Apple case studywe can take the Mac vs. PC advertisement into consideration. There are two boys in this ad standing with a white backdrop, not discussing about its features in length, even not about price, no professional background voice over sort to give emotional pinch, not even telling about how to purchase MAC; just one focal point and that is MAC is better than PC in every sense.

Premium quality of customer experience In Apple case study, we will see how it pursues to make a magical solution to ensure the long-lasting relationship with the customers to increase its sale of products. High price If Apple has one limitation then that has to be its high price.To browse Academia. Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Andreea Stanescu. The identification of future macroeconomic variables that might be of interest and the construction of different scenarios allow the mana- ger to better anticipate the strategic decisions needed to ensure the proper development and sustainability of the business.

Adapting to the changing and competitive environment has now become a necessity for any manager wanting to keep their business afloat and help it to prosper in the coming years. The environment macroeconomic dimension has actually proven itself to be a source of both opportunities and threats for any company on the market, regardless of their industry or sector.

8+ PEST Analysis Examples & Samples in PDF

Therefore, a confirmed anticipation of the lambda macroe- conomic phenomenon will soon provide a direct competi- tive advantage for the manager, if this allows them to react efficiently before their competitors. On the other hand, if a manager underestimates a momentous event in the market, they will quickly find themselves struggling against compe- titors whose forecasts are more complete, as they will have to face their competitive and aggressive strategies.

For example, companies that did not anticipate the expansion and opportunities offered by the internet in time had a hard time at the turn of the millennium. As the ability to predict certain future events seems to be the key to the success, good development and even, in some cases, the survival of a company, there are always people who claim, after a change in the environment, that the indi- cators were inevitably moving in that direction anyway.

It is in this context of uncertainty that the PESTLE analysis has appeared, aiming to identify and analyse the macroe- conomic variable relevant to an organisation in a specific environment. Definition of the model The analysis was given the name PESTLE in reference to the acronym formed by the initials of the six categories of macroeconomic variables included in the model Political, Economic, Socio-cultural, Technological, Legal and Environmental. Firstly, the model allows managers to iden- tify the macroeconomic variables to take into consideration for the development of the business opportunities vs.

Then, the model can help the manager to start conceptua- lising different scenarios based on these uncertain variables to better predict what might happen and make the right decisions now for the future. What is the macro-environment? Johnson et al. However, some authors agree that the first traces of its appearance can be found in the book by Francis J. Aguilar, Scanning the Business Environment At that time, the model was called the PEST analysis, which corresponds to the initial categories of macroeconomic variables: political, economic, socio-cultural and technological.

It was used and perfected during the s and s by several notable authors: Liam Fahey director of the consul- tancy organisation Leadership Forum Inc. Narayanan professor of management at Drexel University and Arnold Brown consulting project manager to name but a few. The collection of variables Since this is a popular and regularly used model, both for completing business plans, production or marketing strate- gies, and for launching new projects e. The primary objective of the PESTLE analysis is the iden- tification of unavoidable macroeconomic changes that might have a significant impact on the development of a company in terms of its products, its brand or even its entire organisation.

Therefore, it is not about conducting a comprehensive study of the external environment: the in- depth analysis of macroeconomic variables is only relevant in relation to a specific company, so that it can anticipate the changes that are likely to occur on its scale. Indeed, of all the macroeconomic events that will occur in the coming years, only some of them will exert a real influence on the evolution of the company.

Hence, an executive at the head of an oil company will not react to the recent discoveries on the contributions of shale gas in the same way as an executive of a shipping company, or the owner of a sandwich shop! Macroeconomic variables are classified into six distinct, though relatively interdependent, categories. The political trends in a country government pressure, monetary policy, etc. Other elements, such as conflict, the level of corruption, or the degree of state intervention should also be considered.

While it is virtually impossible for a company to change the economic situation, it can definitely make preparations in order to better deal with fluctuations. The economic success of a business also involves the observation of key figures relevant to the sector and the analysis of consu- mer trends.

Thus, anticipating a significant decrease in purchasing power allows the company to adapt its overall strategy to minimise losses.

Knowing the characteristics of a population demographics, age distribution, etc. Moreover, history roots and tra- ditions as well as religious and socio-cultural influences fashion, media, means of communication, etc. For example, nationals of Mediterranean countries develop different needs in many ways to those of their counterparts in the Baltic countries due to their culture, the climate in which they live or their religion.

While some of these findings are not likely to influence the target market, others have the potential to completely overturn the norm.

The in- ternet revolution came as a surprise to many managers, and those who anticipated its increased use gained a significant competitive advantage. Continually reassessing the product, as well as the processes involved in its preparation and acquisition by the customer, is the key to successful technological observation.Our website is made possible by displaying online advertisements to our visitors.

Please consider supporting us by disabling your ad blocker. Apple Inc.

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Apple has long been an investor favorite because of its strong revenue growth and high return on investment. Even though it started as a traditional computer company, Apple now designs and manufactures a wide variety of electronic devices, including smartphones, tablets, music players and television sets. Apple has a very unique business model in which it writes and designs proprietary software and offers its own operating system for all of its devices. In recent years, Apple has branched out into entertainment and information services.

pest analysis pdf

It was also able to achieve a profit margin of Apple should be able to thrive in spite of these challenges because it has demonstrated an impressive ability to adapt to a changing environment.

PEST Analysis. PEST Examples. Ad Blocker Detected Our website is made possible by displaying online advertisements to our visitors. Prev Article. Next Article.

pest analysis pdf

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